Una criptomoneda, criptodivisa (del inglés cryptocurrency) o criptoactivo es un medio digital de intercambio que utiliza criptografía fuerte para asegurar las transacciones financieras, controlar la creación de unidades adicionales y verificar la transferencia de activos.1​2​3​ Las criptomonedas son un tipo de divisa alternativa y de moneda digital. Existe controversia respecto a que las criptomonedas tienen que ser de control descentralizado o monedas centralizadas por los bancos centrales u otra entidad.

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“A DAO consists of one or more contracts and could be funded by a group of like-minded individuals. A DAO operates completely transparently and completely independently of any human intervention, including its original creators. A DAO will stay on the network as long as it covers its survival costs and provides a useful service to its customer base” Stephen Tual, Slock.it Founder, former CCO Ethereum.

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Just like bitcoin, litecoin is a crytocurrency that is generated by mining. Litecoin was created in October 2011 by former Google engineer Charles Lee. The motivation behind its creation was to improve upon bitcoin. The key difference for end-users being the 2.5 minute time to generate a block, as opposed to bitcoin’s 10 minutes. Charles Lee now works for Coinbase, one of the most popular online bitcoin wallets.
In October 2015,[62] a development governance was proposed as Ethereum Improvement Proposal, aka EIP, standardized on EIP-1.[63] The core development group and community were to gain consensus by a process regulated EIP. A few notable decisions were made in the process of EIP, such as EIP-160 (EXP cost increase caused by Spurious Dragon Hardfork)[64] and EIP-20 (ERC-20 Token Standard).[65] In January 2018, the EIP process was finalized and published as EIP-1 status turned "active".[62] Alongside ERC-20, notable EIPs to have become finalised token standards include ERC-721[66] (enabling the creation of non-fungible tokens, as used in Cryptokitties) and as of June 2019, ERC-1155 [67] (enabling the creation of both fungible and non-fungible tokens within a single smart contract with reduced gas costs).

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Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is publicly known. In centralized banking and economic systems such as the Federal Reserve System, corporate boards or governments control the supply of currency by printing units of fiat money or demanding additions to digital banking ledgers. In case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments cannot produce new units, and have not so far provided backing for other firms, banks or corporate entities which hold asset value measured in it. The underlying technical system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are based was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto.[23]

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IE… I have 50 ETH , and want to buy a ‘widget’ for 25 ETH given a particular set of circumstances (it works, or the temperature is >10c tomorrow). I agree with a seller on the conditions of a contract, and we ‘create’ a contract on an Ethereum platform, with appropriate sign-offs and verification. This could be 2 steps, or it could be 1000 steps. Once established in the ‘smart contract’, if it is indeed >10c tomorrow, the contract automatically shifts 25 ETH to your account and ships me my widget. The results are recorded in the blockchain.
Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or "addresses").[41] Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.[citation needed]

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Darknet markets present challenges in regard to legality. Bitcoins and other forms of cryptocurrency used in dark markets are not clearly or legally classified in almost all parts of the world. In the U.S., bitcoins are labelled as "virtual assets". This type of ambiguous classification puts pressure on law enforcement agencies around the world to adapt to the shifting drug trade of dark markets.[75]
Transaction fees for cryptocurrency depend mainly on the supply of network capacity at the time, versus the demand from the currency holder for a faster transaction. The currency holder can choose a specific transaction fee, while network entities process transactions in order of highest offered fee to lowest. Cryptocurrency exchanges can simplify the process for currency holders by offering priority alternatives and thereby determine which fee will likely cause the transaction to be processed in the requested time.

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El concepto o idea de criptomoneda fue descrita por primera vez por Wei Dai, en 1998, donde propuso la idea de crear un nuevo tipo de dinero descentralizado que usara la criptografía como medio de control,11​ mientras que la primera criptomoneda que se creó fue Bitcoin, creada en 2009 por el desarrollador de pseudónimo Satoshi Nakamoto, el cual usa el conjunto de funciones criptográficas SHA-2 (exactamente el SHA-256) como su esquema PoW (prueba de trabajo).12​13​ Posteriormente, han aparecido otras criptomonedas, como Namecoin (un intento de descentralizar el sistema de nombres de dominio DNS, lo que haría muy difícil la censura de internet), Litecoin (el cual utiliza scrypt como esquema PoW, así como también, para tener una confirmación de transacción más rápida), Peercoin (el cual utiliza un esquema híbrido PoW/PoS [prueba de trabajo/prueba de participación], además tiene una tasa de inflación del alrededor de 1 %) y Freicoin (el cuál implementó el concepto de Silvio Gesell agregando depreciación en el tiempo).14​ Muchas otras criptomonedas han sido creadas, aunque no todas han sido exitosas, en especial aquellas que no han aportado ninguna innovación.

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As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[30][31] By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.[32] Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 "HD Wallet". In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction.

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Transactions that occur through the use and exchange of these altcoins are independent from formal banking systems, and therefore can make tax evasion simpler for individuals. Since charting taxable income is based upon what a recipient reports to the revenue service, it becomes extremely difficult to account for transactions made using existing cryptocurrencies, a mode of exchange that is complex and difficult to track.[66]

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Ethereum provides a decentralized virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes.[4] The virtual machine's instruction set, in contrast to others like Bitcoin Script, is thought to be Turing-complete. "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.[4]

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Paul Krugman, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner does not like bitcoin, has repeated numerous times that it is a bubble that will not last[92] and links it to Tulip mania.[93] American business magnate Warren Buffett thinks that cryptocurrency will come to a bad ending.[94] In October 2017, BlackRock CEO Laurence D. Fink called bitcoin an 'index of money laundering'.[95] "Bitcoin just shows you how much demand for money laundering there is in the world," he said.

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As of May 2018, over 1,800 cryptocurrency specifications existed.[24] Within a cryptocurrency system, the safety, integrity and balance of ledgers is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners: who use their computers to help validate and timestamp transactions, adding them to the ledger in accordance with a particular timestamping scheme.[14]

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As the industry continues to investigate blockchain platforms, it’s apparent that Ethereum is becoming a de facto leader. For example, a few days ago JPMorgan publicly open-sourced its Quorum platform, architected and developed around the Go Ethereum client by Jeff Wilcke and his team. Several other major banks are using Ethereum, and Microsoft is anchoring its Bletchley platform on it as the foundational blockchain element. Industry, both publicly and confidentially, continues to contribute to Ethereum and work with us and others to help our promising, toddler-age codebase reach maturity. Stay tuned for news on this front.

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Zcoin is a privacy focused cryptocurrency that was originally built on the Zerocoin protocol. However, given a number of vulnerabilities in that protocol, they recently moved to a new "Sigma" Protocol that was launched in 2019. Transactions are made private by a privacy enhancement in the protocol called "minting". Before you are able to send transactions, you have to mint new coins. Given that all coin’s transactions originate from a newly minted coin, it is hard to track the origin. Privacy on Zcoin is made possible through the use of Zero Knowledge proofs. You also have Tor integration as well as their recently released "Dandelion" protocol. This will further help to cement user privacy on the network. ZCoin uses a the Merkle Tree Proof of Work algorithm (MTP). This is a memory hard algorithm that is considered to be ASIC resistant and hence less prone to centralisation. Zcoin also has a masternode architecture with their "Znodes" (require 1,000 XZC to stake). In compensation for running this full node, the Znode will receive 30% of the newly minted Zcoins. The team behind the Zcoin protocol is quite extensive experience in blockchain engineering, software development, cryptography and many more. The developers have also been hard at work if you take a look into their GitHub repository. When it comes to markets, XZC is listed on a number of exchanges including MXC, Coinex, Binance, Huobi etc. There appears to be reasonable liquidity on these exchanges which will ease execution. However, XZC is still volatile so trade with caution. *Coin Bureau's views are not investment advice. Do Your Own Research.

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As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[30][31] By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.[32] Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 "HD Wallet". In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction.
El concepto o idea de criptomoneda fue descrita por primera vez por Wei Dai, en 1998, donde propuso la idea de crear un nuevo tipo de dinero descentralizado que usara la criptografía como medio de control,11​ mientras que la primera criptomoneda que se creó fue Bitcoin, creada en 2009 por el desarrollador de pseudónimo Satoshi Nakamoto, el cual usa el conjunto de funciones criptográficas SHA-2 (exactamente el SHA-256) como su esquema PoW (prueba de trabajo).12​13​ Posteriormente, han aparecido otras criptomonedas, como Namecoin (un intento de descentralizar el sistema de nombres de dominio DNS, lo que haría muy difícil la censura de internet), Litecoin (el cual utiliza scrypt como esquema PoW, así como también, para tener una confirmación de transacción más rápida), Peercoin (el cual utiliza un esquema híbrido PoW/PoS [prueba de trabajo/prueba de participación], además tiene una tasa de inflación del alrededor de 1 %) y Freicoin (el cuál implementó el concepto de Silvio Gesell agregando depreciación en el tiempo).14​ Muchas otras criptomonedas han sido creadas, aunque no todas han sido exitosas, en especial aquellas que no han aportado ninguna innovación.
Ethereum provides a decentralized virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes.[4] The virtual machine's instruction set, in contrast to others like Bitcoin Script, is thought to be Turing-complete. "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.[4] 

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