An initial coin offering (ICO) is a controversial means of raising funds for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO may be used by startups with the intention of avoiding regulation. However, securities regulators in many jurisdictions, including in the U.S., and Canada have indicated that if a coin or token is an "investment contract" (e.g., under the Howey test, i.e., an investment of money with a reasonable expectation of profit based significantly on the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others), it is a security and is subject to securities regulation. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency (usually in the form of "tokens") is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often bitcoin or ether.[47][48][49]
There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.[41]
En los sistemas de criptomonedas, se garantiza la seguridad, integridad y equilibrio de sus estados de cuentas (contabilidad) por medio de un entramado de agentes (transferencia de archivo segmentada o transferencia de archivo multifuente) que se verifican (desconfían) mutuamente llamados mineros, que son, en su mayoría, público en general y protegen activamente la red (el entramado) al mantener una alta tasa de procesamiento de algoritmos, con la finalidad de tener la oportunidad de recibir una pequeña propina, que se reparte de manera aleatoria.5​

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En los sistemas de criptomonedas, se garantiza la seguridad, integridad y equilibrio de sus estados de cuentas (contabilidad) por medio de un entramado de agentes (transferencia de archivo segmentada o transferencia de archivo multifuente) que se verifican (desconfían) mutuamente llamados mineros, que son, en su mayoría, público en general y protegen activamente la red (el entramado) al mantener una alta tasa de procesamiento de algoritmos, con la finalidad de tener la oportunidad de recibir una pequeña propina, que se reparte de manera aleatoria.5​

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Any services that are centralized can be decentralized using Ethereum. Think about all the intermediary services that exist across hundreds of different industries. From obvious services like loans provided by banks to intermediary services rarely thought about by most people like title registries, voting systems, regulatory compliance and much more.

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Smart contract is just a phrase used to describe a computer code that can facilitate the exchange of money, content, property, shares, or anything of value. When running on the blockchain a smart contract becomes like a self-operating computer program that automatically executes when specific conditions are met. Because smart contracts run on the blockchain, they run exactly as programmed without any possibility of censorship, downtime, fraud or third-party interference.
As the industry continues to investigate blockchain platforms, it’s apparent that Ethereum is becoming a de facto leader. For example, a few days ago JPMorgan publicly open-sourced its Quorum platform, architected and developed around the Go Ethereum client by Jeff Wilcke and his team. Several other major banks are using Ethereum, and Microsoft is anchoring its Bletchley platform on it as the foundational blockchain element. Industry, both publicly and confidentially, continues to contribute to Ethereum and work with us and others to help our promising, toddler-age codebase reach maturity. Stay tuned for news on this front.

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En 1983, el criptógrafo estadounidense David Chaum concibió un sistema criptográfico monetario electrónico llamado eCash. Más tarde, en 1995, implementó DigiCash, que utilizaba la criptografía para volver anónimas las transacciones de dinero, aunque con una emisión y liquidación (pago) centralizado.8​ Este sistema requería un software para retirar dinero de un banco y designar claves cifradas específicas antes de que puedan enviarse a un destinatario. Esto permitió que la moneda digital no fuera rastreable por el banco emisor, el gobierno o cualquier tercero.
While cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that are managed through advanced encryption techniques, many governments have taken a cautious approach toward them, fearing their lack of central control and the effects they could have on financial security.[81] Regulators in several countries have warned against cryptocurrency and some have taken concrete regulatory measures to dissuade users.[82] Additionally, many banks do not offer services for cryptocurrencies and can refuse to offer services to virtual-currency companies.[83] Gareth Murphy, a senior central banking officer has stated "widespread use [of cryptocurrency] would also make it more difficult for statistical agencies to gather data on economic activity, which are used by governments to steer the economy". He cautioned that virtual currencies pose a new challenge to central banks' control over the important functions of monetary and exchange rate policy.[84] While traditional financial products have strong consumer protections in place, there is no intermediary with the power to limit consumer losses if bitcoins are lost or stolen.[85] One of the features cryptocurrency lacks in comparison to credit cards, for example, is consumer protection against fraud, such as chargebacks.
Vitalik Buterin picked the name Ethereum after browsing Wikipedia articles about elements and science fiction, when he found the name, noting, "I immediately realized that I liked it better than all of the other alternatives that I had seen; I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word 'ether', referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel."[9]
After much debate, the Ethereum community voted and decided to retrieve the stolen funds by executing what’s known as a hard fork or a change in code. The hard fork moved the stolen funds to a new smart contract designed to let the original owners withdraw their tokens. But this is where things get complicated. The implications of this decision are controversial and the topic of intense debate.

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Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually decrease production of that currency, placing a cap on the total amount of that currency that will ever be in circulation.[25] Compared with ordinary currencies held by financial institutions or kept as cash on hand, cryptocurrencies can be more difficult for seizure by law enforcement.[1] This difficulty is derived from leveraging cryptographic technologies.

En los sistemas de criptomonedas, se garantiza la seguridad, integridad y equilibrio de sus estados de cuentas (contabilidad) por medio de un entramado de agentes (transferencia de archivo segmentada o transferencia de archivo multifuente) que se verifican (desconfían) mutuamente llamados mineros, que son, en su mayoría, público en general y protegen activamente la red (el entramado) al mantener una alta tasa de procesamiento de algoritmos, con la finalidad de tener la oportunidad de recibir una pequeña propina, que se reparte de manera aleatoria.5​

Until relatively recently, building blockchain applications has required a complex background in coding, cryptography, mathematics as well as significant resources. But times have changed. Previously unimagined applications, from electronic voting & digitally recorded property assets to regulatory compliance & trading are now actively being developed and deployed faster than ever before. By providing developers with the tools to build decentralized applications, Ethereum is making all of this possible.

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Welcome to the 34th Coin Report. In today’s report, I will be assessing the fundamental and technical strengths and weaknesses of Constellation. This will be comprised of an analysis of a number of significant metrics, an evaluation of the project’s community and development and an overview of its price-history. The report will conclude with a grading out of 10. Constellation launched in 2017 with a private sale that raised $35.2mn in exchange for 756mn DAG – the utility token for the Constellation Network. This amounted to 18.9% of the original 4,000,000,000 DAG maximum supply; however, as a gesture of good will, the founders burned the 288mn tokens originally allocated to them, leaving the maximum supply at 3.71bn DAG. The team raised no further funds following this. DAG was created as an ERC-20 token for accessibility purposes, but, upon the launch of the Mainnet in October, these tokens will be swapped for the native Directed Acyclic Graph tokens; hence the ticker, DAG.

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As of May 2018, over 1,800 cryptocurrency specifications existed.[24] Within a cryptocurrency system, the safety, integrity and balance of ledgers is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners: who use their computers to help validate and timestamp transactions, adding them to the ledger in accordance with a particular timestamping scheme.[14]

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Esta es una explicación técnica para todo el mundo de como realmente funcionan las criptomonedas, sus transacciones, mineria o minado, sus origenes, problemas y mucho más. ¿Como funciona la minería? ¿Vale la pena minar? No solo aprenderás la historia del Bitcoin y como funciona si no que también entenderas los principios y mecanismos que tiene detrás.

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Ethereum was announced at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami, in January, 2014.[9] During the same time as the conference, a group of people rented a house in Miami: Gavin Wood, Charles Hoskinson, and Anthony Di Iorio, a Torontonian who financed the project.[9] Di Iorio invited friend Joseph Lubin, who invited reporter Morgen Peck, to bear witness.[9] Six months later the founders met again in a house in Zug, Switzerland, where Buterin told the founders that the project would proceed as a non-profit. Hoskinson left the project at that time.[9]

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Existen servicios como CryptoLife y WalletBuilders que le ayudan a crear su propia criptomoneda de forma rápida y fácil. Estos servicios le ofrecen a usted todo el conocimiento técnico para llevar a cabo el proceso, y a través de ellos su moneda puede estar al aire en un día. No obstante, debe esperar que le cobren por el servicio y además, muchos piden que usted exponga su plan de negocios y demuestre que su interés va más allá de ‘la simple curiosidad’.37​

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While it’s still early days, Mist, MetaMask and a variety of other browsers look set to make blockchain-based applications accessible to more people than ever before. Even people without a technical background can now potentially build blockchain apps. This is a revolutionary leap for blockchain technology that could bring decentralized applications into the mainstream.
We are always looking for feedback on the platform and user suggestions are regularly included in future releases of this price tracking software. The website is currently undergoing development to include price data from all ERC20 tokens as well order book data, blockchain usage data and more. We endeavour to keep the site simple to use with clear data visualizations that help investors stay abreast of the latest Ethereum price movements. We are determined to keep this webapp free from intrusive advertising; please share this website and its content!
Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own finances. Litecoin features faster transaction confirmation times and improved storage efficiency than the leading math-based currency. With substantial industry support, trade volume and liquidity, Litecoin is a proven medium of commerce complementary to Bitcoin. 

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Las cadenas de bloques son seguras por diseño y son un ejemplo de sistema distribuido con un alta tolerancia a faltas bizantinas. El consenso descentralizado ha sido logrado gracias a la cadena de bloques. Las cadenas de bloques resuelven el problema de doble gasto sin la necesidad de una autoridad certificada o un servidor central, asumiendo que no se va a dar el ataque del 51% (que ha funcionado con varias criptomonedas).

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As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada.[32] One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices.[33] In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining.[34] According to a February 2018 report from Fortune,[35] Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity. Prices are contained because nearly all of the country's energy comes from renewable sources, prompting more mining companies to consider opening operations in Iceland.[citation needed]

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It takes a (global) village to raise a blockchain. The live network and the community of open source developers contribute significantly to this effort. They continuously refine and harden the Ethereum platform, helping it get faster at responding to industry demands for the value propositions it offers. These investments of time and resources speak to their faith in Ethereum governance and the value that businesses and developers see in its capabilities. – Joseph Lubin, CEO of Consensys

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Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is publicly known. In centralized banking and economic systems such as the Federal Reserve System, corporate boards or governments control the supply of currency by printing units of fiat money or demanding additions to digital banking ledgers. In case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments cannot produce new units, and have not so far provided backing for other firms, banks or corporate entities which hold asset value measured in it. The underlying technical system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are based was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto.[23]

Las tarifas en las criptomonedas dependen principalmente de la oferta de capacidad de cálculo de la red en el momento y de la demanda del usuario de una transacción rápida. El usuario puede escoger una tarifa específica, mientras que los mineros procesan las transacciones en orden decreciente. Se puede simplificar el proceso para el usuario ofreciendo prioridades alternativas y determinando el tiempo que podría tardar cada una.

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Bitcoin es seudónimo en vez de anónimo, ya que la criptomoneda dentro de una cartera no está vinculada a las personas, si no a una más claves específicas. Por lo tanto, los usuarios de los bitcoin no son identificables, pero todas las transacciones están públicamente en la cadena de bloques. Sin embargo, la ley exige a menudo que los intercambios de criptomonedas recaben información personal de sus usuarios.

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