Cryptocurrencies have been compared to Ponzi schemes, pyramid schemes[76] and economic bubbles,[77] such as housing market bubbles.[78] Howard Marks of Oaktree Capital Management stated in 2017 that digital currencies were "nothing but an unfounded fad (or perhaps even a pyramid scheme), based on a willingness to ascribe value to something that has little or none beyond what people will pay for it", and compared them to the tulip mania (1637), South Sea Bubble (1720), and dot-com bubble (1999).[79] The New Yorker has explained the debate based on interviews with blockchain founders in an article about the “argument over whether Bitcoin, Ethereum, and the blockchain are transforming the world”.[80]

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The rapid price increase of Ethereum has not only attracted investors but developers too. Ethereum has tens of thousands of developers in its open source community, each contributing to the many layers of the “Ethereum stack”. This includes code contributions to the core Ethereum clients, second layer scaling tech and the “decentralized applications” (dApps) that are built on top of the platform. The appeal of Ethereum to developers is unique in that it was the first platform to allow anyone in the world to write and deploy code that would run without the risk of censorship. The community of developers which have formed around these core principles have led to the creation of technologies that could not have existed without the inception of Ethereum, many of which were never predicted. Some of the major use-cases of Ethereum so far have been:

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Vroege pogingen om versleuteling (cryptografie) met elektronische valuta te combineren stammen van David Chaum, die DigiCash en ecash bedacht om elektronische geldtransacties versleuteld te kunnen verzenden.[20] De eerste echte cryptomunt was Bitcoin dat in 2009 door een softwaremaker met pseudoniem Satoshi Nakamoto werd ontworpen.[21] Dit systeem gebruikt de hashmethode SHA-256 als het proof-of-work-schema.[22]

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Vaak wordt een proof-of-work-schema gebruikt voor een systeem van consensus op basis van rekenkracht dat bescherming moet bieden tegen manipulatie en vervalsing. Er worden vaak meerdere transacties verwerkt in ieder blok (bij bitcoin bijvoorbeeld per blok alle transacties in een tijdsinterval van ongeveer 10 minuten, dat zijn er ongeveer 3000 in december 2017[5][6]). Zodra een blok gevonden is wordt het openbaar gemaakt. De andere nodes controleren het, en de nodes gaan op basis hiervan en van de inmiddels nieuw uitgevoerde transacties beginnen met het zoeken naar weer een nieuw blok.

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Ethereum has recently created a new standard called the ERC721 token for tracking unique digital assets. One of the biggest use cases currently for such tokens is digital collectibles, as the infrastructure allows for people to prove ownership of scarce digital goods. Many games are currently being built using this technology, such as the overnight hit CryptoKitties, a game where you can collect and breed digital cats.
Coinbase had announced in late September that it is looking to quickly add new cryptocurrencies that meet its standards and meet local law compliance. The exchange recently started supporting Ethereum Classic, and now there’s talk that it could list Ripple as well. The exchange has justannounced that Coinbase Custody, its branch providing custodian service for institutional investors, is now adding support for Ripple (XRP).

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As of May 2018, over 1,800 cryptocurrency specifications existed.[24] Within a cryptocurrency system, the safety, integrity and balance of ledgers is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners: who use their computers to help validate and timestamp transactions, adding them to the ledger in accordance with a particular timestamping scheme.[14]

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