Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction-based state transitions. Ether is a cryptocurrency generated by the Ethereum platform and used to compensate mining nodes for computations performed.[3] Each Ethereum account has an ether balance and ether may be transferred from one account to another.

كيف يمكنني الاستثمار في الميزان عملة معماة


* «أورواكوين» Auroracoin. عام الإنشاء: 2014، القيمة السوقية: 236.6 مليون دولار،، السعر: 22.34 دولار. تم إنشاء عملة «الأوروراكوين» بعدما خطرت ببال صاحب مشروع رائد مزعوم آيسلندي الأصل، فكرة توزيع العملة المشفرة على الجميع في بلاده. وتقوم عملة «الأورواكوين» على أساس «اللايتكوين» مع استخراج 50 في المائة منها مسبقًا. وسيتم توزيع العملات المستخرجة مسبقًا على جميع سكان آيسلندا بداية من منتصف ليل 25 مارس (آذار).
داش (المعروف أصلا باسم دارك كوين Darkcoin) هو نسخة أكثر سرية من بيتكوين. داش يوفر المزيد من عدم الكشف عن هويته لأنه يعمل على شبكة رمزية لامركزية التي تجعل المعاملات تقريبا على نحو لا يمكن تتبعه. أطلقت في يناير 2014، شهدت داش إنتشارا متزايدا في فترة قصيرة من الزمن. تم إنشاء هذه العملة الرقمية من قبل إيفان دوفيلد ويمكن تعذينها باستخدام وحدة المعالجة المركزية CPU أو GPU. في مارس 2015، تم تغيير علامة “دارك كوين Darkcoin” إلى داش Dash، والتي تقف على النقد الرقمي وتعمل تحت شريط – داش. لم تغيير العلامة التجارية أي من الميزات التكنولوجية Darksend و InstantX.
In August 2019, Coinbase announced that it was targeted by a sophisticated hacking attack attempt in mid-June. This reported attack used spear-phishing and social engineering tactics (including sending fake e-mails from compromised email accounts and created a landing page at the University of Cambridge) and two Firefox browser zero-day vulnerabilities. One of the Firefox vulnerabilities could allow an attacker to escalate privileges from JavaScript on a browser page (CVE-2019–11707) and the second one could allow the attacker to escape the browser sandbox and execute code on the host computer (CVE-2019–11708). Coinbase's security team detected and blocked the attack, the network was not compromised, and no cryptocurrency was stolen.[39][40][41]

كيف يمكنني شراء شمعة ممتاز


In 2018 Coinbase launched their independant mobile wallet for iOS and Android. The wallet stores the private keys on the user’s device and only they have access to the funds. This brings Coinbase full circle as it started out as a wallet, transitioned to an exchange only (claiming that they are not a wallet) and now they are offering wallet services again.

هو عملة معماة قانونية في اليابان


Ethereum can also be used to build Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO). A DAO is fully autonomous, decentralized organization with no single leader. DAO’s are run by programming code, on a collection of smart contracts written on the Ethereum blockchain. The code is designed to replace the rules and structure of a traditional organization, eliminating the need for people and centralized control. A DAO is owned by everyone who purchases tokens, but instead of each token equating to equity shares & ownership, tokens act as contributions that give people voting rights.

سوف بيتكوين من اي وقت مضى استعادة 2019


This content is being provided to you for informational purposes only. The content has been prepared by third parties not affiliated with Coinbase Inc or any of its affiliates and Coinbase is not responsible for its content. This content and any information contained therein, does not constitute a recommendation by Coinbase to buy, sell or hold any security, financial product or instrument referenced in the content.

هل هي امنة لشراء بيتكوين على Robinhood


On February 16, 2018, Coinbase admitted that some customers were overcharged in error for credit and debit purchases of cryptocurrencies. The problem was initiated when banks and card issuers changed the merchant category code (MCC) for cryptocurrency purchases earlier this month. This meant that cryptocurrency payments would now be processed as "cash advances", meaning that banks and credit card issuers could begin charging customers cash-advance fees for cryptocurrency purchases. Any customers who purchased cryptocurrency on their exchange between January 22 and February 11, 2018 could have been affected. At first, Visa blamed Coinbase, telling the Financial Times on February 16 that it had "not made any systems changes that would result in the duplicate transactions cardholders are reporting." However, the latest statement from Visa and Worldpay on the Coinbase blog clarifies: "This issue was not caused by Coinbase."[45]

غير الفيسبوك على وشك اطلاق واحد لها عملة معماة


Armed with the knowledge of Ethereum’s price history, future predictions and the associated risks to investing in this cryptocurrency, you may now be considering a purchase. Buying Ethereum has evolved from a niche and slightly cumbersome process to one which has been polished into simplicity. Ethereum can now be bought through debit/credit card, epayment platforms, bank transfer, cash or even Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Speculators can bet on the asset (both long and short) through “contracts for difference” (CFDs) or they can purchase and secure the asset themselves to “become their own bank”.

امثلة عملة معماة


لعلّ العملات المشفّرة من أهم التقنيات الّتي أوجدها البشر، وهي تقنية سترسم معالم المستقبل، ولربما ستستبدل كل التقنيات الحالية الّتي نستخدمها لتداول الأموال والشراء والبيع. إلّا أنّ ذلك لم يمنع بعضهم من إنشاء بعض العملات الّتي تحمل بعض الطرافة والجنون، وهذه قائمة من خمس عملات بدأت من خلال المزاح إلا أنّها تحولّت فيما بعد إلى عملات ذات شأن واحتلت مراكز متقدمة في قوائم العملات بمختلف التصنيفات، إلا أنّ تصنيف الطرافة بقي الأهم. 

ما هو الفرق بين عملة معماة وBlockchain


في البنوك المركزية و الانظمة الاقتصادية كـالاحتياطي الفدرالي , القطاع العام و الحكومات تتحكم في خزائن العملات بطبع النقود الرئيسية ألزاما أو الطلب بدفاتر بنوك رقمية أضافية. ومع ذلك , الشركات و الحكومات لاتستطيع انتاج وحدات العملات المشفرة أو بمعني أخر حتي الآن لا توجد سندات مقدمة للشركات الأخرى , للبنوك والشركات كيانات حيث تعقد قيمة الأصول التي تقاس في عملة مشفرة لا مركزية و العملة تنشئ بواسطة نظام متكامل تقني و أساسي حيث انها تنشئ بواسطة مجموعة أو شخصية معروفة أو بلا هوية مثل مخترع Bitcoin .

غير بيتكوين لا تزال استثمارا جيدا 2019


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كيف يمكنك ان منجم للBitcoins


In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[25] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were taken by an unknown hacker.[26][27] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious "hard fork" to reappropriate the affected funds.[28] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[29] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.

ما هو السعر الحالي للعملة معماة KBC


While another less aggressive soft fork solution was put forth, the Ethereum community and its founders were placed in a perilous position. If they didn’t retrieve the stolen investor money, confidence in Ethereum could be lost. On the other hand, recovering investor money required actions that went against the core ideas of decentralization and set a dangerous precedent.

ما هو الامن التشفير


There is no company or centralized organization that controls Ethereum. Ethereum is maintained and improved over time by a diverse global community of contributors who work on everything from the core protocol to consumer applications. This website, just like the rest of Ethereum, was built - and continues to be built - by a collection of people working together.

cryptocurrencies


In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[25] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were taken by an unknown hacker.[26][27] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious "hard fork" to reappropriate the affected funds.[28] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[29] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks. 

ما هو السعر الحالي للعملة معماة KBC


In the end, the majority of the Ethereum community voted to perform a hard fork, and retrieve The DAO investors money. But not everyone agreed with this course of action. This resulted in a split where two parallel blockchains now exist. For those members who strongly disagree with any changes to the blockchain even when hacking occurs there is Ethereum classic. For the majority who agreed to rewrite a small part of the blockchain and return the stolen money to their owners, there is Ethereum.  
There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.[41]
Like Bitcoin, Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capability. Bitcoin offers one particular application of blockchain technology, a peer to peer electronic cash system that enables online Bitcoin payments. While the Bitcoin blockchain is used to track ownership of digital currency (bitcoins), the Ethereum blockchain focuses on running the programming code of any decentralized application.

ما هو الهدف من Bitcoins


In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs.[56] Being a blockchain means it is secure by design and is an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds.[56] As of January 2016, the Ethereum protocol could process about 25 transactions per second.[56] In comparison, the Visa payment platform processes 45,000 payments per second leading some to question the scalability of Ethereum.[57] On 19 December 2016, Ethereum exceeded one million transactions in a single day for the first time.[58]

ما هي مزايا استخدام بيتكوين


Coinbase has two core products: a Global Digital Asset Exchange (GDAX) for trading a variety of digital assets on its professional asset trading platform, and a user-facing retail broker of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ether, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin for fiat currency.[24] It also offers an API for developers and merchants to build applications and accept payments in both digital currencies. As of 2018, the company offered buy/sell trading functionality in 32 countries,[42] while the cryptocurrency wallet was available in 190 countries worldwide.[43] On March 26, 2018, Coinbase announced their intention to add support for ERC-20 tokens.[44]

ما هو التشفير ZRX


Ethereum was announced at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami, in January, 2014.[9] During the same time as the conference, a group of people rented a house in Miami: Gavin Wood, Charles Hoskinson, and Anthony Di Iorio, a Torontonian who financed the project.[9] Di Iorio invited friend Joseph Lubin, who invited reporter Morgen Peck, to bear witness.[9] Six months later the founders met again in a house in Zug, Switzerland, where Buterin told the founders that the project would proceed as a non-profit. Hoskinson left the project at that time.[9]

الذي صرف بيتكوين هو افضل


Ethereum can also be used to build Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO). A DAO is fully autonomous, decentralized organization with no single leader. DAO’s are run by programming code, on a collection of smart contracts written on the Ethereum blockchain. The code is designed to replace the rules and structure of a traditional organization, eliminating the need for people and centralized control. A DAO is owned by everyone who purchases tokens, but instead of each token equating to equity shares & ownership, tokens act as contributions that give people voting rights.

سوف بيتكوين من اي وقت مضى استعادة 2019


J. P. Morgan Chase is developing JPM Coin on a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed "Quorum".[52] It's designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments. The idea is to satisfy regulators who need seamless access to financial goings-on, while protecting the privacy of parties that don't wish to reveal their identities nor the details of their transactions to the general public.[53]
Welcome to the 34th Coin Report. In today’s report, I will be assessing the fundamental and technical strengths and weaknesses of Constellation. This will be comprised of an analysis of a number of significant metrics, an evaluation of the project’s community and development and an overview of its price-history. The report will conclude with a grading out of 10. Constellation launched in 2017 with a private sale that raised $35.2mn in exchange for 756mn DAG – the utility token for the Constellation Network. This amounted to 18.9% of the original 4,000,000,000 DAG maximum supply; however, as a gesture of good will, the founders burned the 288mn tokens originally allocated to them, leaving the maximum supply at 3.71bn DAG. The team raised no further funds following this. DAG was created as an ERC-20 token for accessibility purposes, but, upon the launch of the Mainnet in October, these tokens will be swapped for the native Directed Acyclic Graph tokens; hence the ticker, DAG.

سوف ترتفع عملة معماة مرة اخرى في 2019


Despite the fallout from The DAO hack, Ethereum is moving forward and looking to a bright future. By providing a user-friendly platform that enables people to harness the power of blockchain technology, Ethereum is speeding up the decentralization of the world economy. Decentralized applications have the potential to profoundly disrupt hundreds of industries including finance, real estate, academia, insurance, healthcare and the public sector amongst many others.
This dramatic volatility attracted global attention with the mainstream media running near-daily reports on the price of Ether. The publicity generated has been a major boon for the ecosystem, attracting thousands of new developers and business ventures alike. In 2018 the amount raised through Ethereum-enabled ICOs reached almost $8bn, increasing from just $90m in 2016. While the price of Ethereum has faced extreme volatility over the years, it is this volatility which has driven interest. After every boom and bust cycle, Ethereum comes out the other side with a fundamentally stronger platform and a broader developer community backing it. These fundamental improvements would suggest a positive long-term outlook on the price of Ethereum.

ما هي افضل محفظة لتخزين عملة معماة


في البنوك المركزية و الانظمة الاقتصادية كـالاحتياطي الفدرالي , القطاع العام و الحكومات تتحكم في خزائن العملات بطبع النقود الرئيسية ألزاما أو الطلب بدفاتر بنوك رقمية أضافية. ومع ذلك , الشركات و الحكومات لاتستطيع انتاج وحدات العملات المشفرة أو بمعني أخر حتي الآن لا توجد سندات مقدمة للشركات الأخرى , للبنوك والشركات كيانات حيث تعقد قيمة الأصول التي تقاس في عملة مشفرة لا مركزية و العملة تنشئ بواسطة نظام متكامل تقني و أساسي حيث انها تنشئ بواسطة مجموعة أو شخصية معروفة أو بلا هوية مثل مخترع Bitcoin .

كيف يمكنني شراء الدولار XRP


In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[25] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were taken by an unknown hacker.[26][27] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious "hard fork" to reappropriate the affected funds.[28] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[29] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.

ما هو السعر الحالي للعملة معماة KBC


Vitalik Buterin picked the name Ethereum after browsing Wikipedia articles about elements and science fiction, when he found the name, noting, "I immediately realized that I liked it better than all of the other alternatives that I had seen; I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word 'ether', referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel."[9]
In April 2019, a UK corporate filing stated that Coinbase's non-U.S. revenue grew 20% to €153 million (U.S.$173 million) in 2018 resulting in a net profit of €6.6 million.[37] Coinbase UK CEO Zeeshan Feroz said the company's non-U.S. operations accounted for nearly one-third of the company's overall revenue and Reuters estimated that the company's global revenue totaled "around $520 million" in 2018.[38]

هو القمار التشفير غير قانوني


Coinbase has lost my money twice now. Once was due to an old account that, thanks to a bug in their verification process, I cannot re-authenticate. I bought 1 bitcoin back when they were only about $50 each with Coinbase. That money is gone forever now. And I acknowledge that it’s my fault that I did not set up a forwarding email with Coinbase, their support just refused to help. The second time was a month ago. I made a trade on Coinbase, and for some reason, the app glitched to think I have 5x more money than I actually… Read more »

العملة المعماة أو (المشفرة) (بالانجليزية:Cryptocurrency) عبارة عن عملة رقمية تستخدم في علم التعمية بغرض أمني لحماية التعاملات الافتراضية والتحكم بإنشاء وحدات جديدة و لذلك صعب أن تزيف تلك العملة , وتعتبر وسيط للتبادل الأفتراضي (ألكترونيا) وأيضا فرعا من العملة البديلة أول عملة معماة أنشئت هي Bitcoin في 2009 و منذ ذلك الوقت انشئت عملات أخرى لمنافستها مثل لايت كوين - Litecoin و نيم كوين - Namecoin وغيرها.[1][2][3]

Coinbase has two core products: a Global Digital Asset Exchange (GDAX) for trading a variety of digital assets on its professional asset trading platform, and a user-facing retail broker of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ether, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin for fiat currency.[24] It also offers an API for developers and merchants to build applications and accept payments in both digital currencies. As of 2018, the company offered buy/sell trading functionality in 32 countries,[42] while the cryptocurrency wallet was available in 190 countries worldwide.[43] On March 26, 2018, Coinbase announced their intention to add support for ERC-20 tokens.[44]

لماذا بيتكوين اسعار مختلفة في البورصات المختلفة


What is the point of being insured if they will never admit wrongdoing? It is rare that an employee will steal your funds. My account was almost emptied when they sent my funds to someone in the Netherlands. Coinbase has done nothing to get them back for me. I had not even accessed my account for a week, yet they accuse me of doing something that caused this to happen. I would never give anyone my password, there’s no one else here to use my computer, my internet provider said I got no messages from Coinbase (2 step verification) on… Read more »
This content is being provided to you for informational purposes only. The content has been prepared by third parties not affiliated with Coinbase Inc or any of its affiliates and Coinbase is not responsible for its content. This content and any information contained therein, does not constitute a recommendation by Coinbase to buy, sell or hold any security, financial product or instrument referenced in the content.
In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs.[56] Being a blockchain means it is secure by design and is an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds.[56] As of January 2016, the Ethereum protocol could process about 25 transactions per second.[56] In comparison, the Visa payment platform processes 45,000 payments per second leading some to question the scalability of Ethereum.[57] On 19 December 2016, Ethereum exceeded one million transactions in a single day for the first time.[58]
كانت الصحون الطائرة الغريبة (وما زالت) واحدة من أغرب الظواهر وأكثرها غموضًا، ولا يزال العديد من البشر يؤمنون بوجودها ويقدّمون من الحجج الكثير لدعم نظرياتهم المختلفة. لذلك فإنّ إطلاق عملة تحمل ذات الاسم سيجعلها تنتشر بسهولة ويُصبح الإقبال عليها كبيرًا، وهذا ما كان. ولكن لسوء الحظ، لا تُستخدم هذه العملة لتمويل استكشاف المجرات أو الأبحاث المتعلقة بتلك الأجسام والصحون الغريبة.
* «برايمكوين» Primecoin. عام الإنشاء: 2013. القيمة السوقية: 7.1 مليون دولار، السعر: 1.55 دولار. مع هذه العملة يتعين على مستخرجيها استخدام أجهزة الكومبيوتر الخاصة بهم من أجل العثور على سلاسل «كانينغهام»، وهي عبارة عن تسلسلات من الأرقام الأولية. وتتميز عملة «البرايمكوين» باستخراج هذه الأرقام الأولية في إطار «تقديم قيمة علمية محتملة إضافة إلى سكّ العملة، وأمن الشبكة».

وبيتكوين التعدين القانوني في قطر


“A DAO consists of one or more contracts and could be funded by a group of like-minded individuals. A DAO operates completely transparently and completely independently of any human intervention, including its original creators. A DAO will stay on the network as long as it covers its survival costs and provides a useful service to its customer base” Stephen Tual, Slock.it Founder, former CCO Ethereum.
إنّه التسلسل المنطقي، فلا يمكن أن نتكلّم عن عملة لبوتين إلّا وأن نلحقها بعملة لترامب، وذلك لأنّ الصراع بين الرئيسين يبدو أنّه انتقل من عالم السياسة إلى عالم العملات المشفّرة. أُطلقت العملة في تشرين الثاني (نوفمبر) من عام 2016، وكان الهدف الرئيسي هو خلق حركة سياسية من قبل الشعب لدعم الحملة الرئاسية لترامب، وجعل العملات المشفّرة وسيلة مقبولة لجمع الأموال للحملات الانتخابية. جذبت هذه العملة اهتمام الكثيرين، ويبلغ سقف السوق حوالي 3.1 مليون دولار. كل ترامب يساوي 48 سنتًا.

يمكنني تبادل العملات نقدا في اي بنك


Coinbase is a terrible and unprofessional company. They’ve ignored my requests for escalation after providing no feed back on the issues I am having. These issues are costing this customer not only monetarily, but due to the lack of transparency with new policies in which coinbase will hold your funds hostage for 10 days while advising that it can be transferred “instantly” is not only false, but malicious contempt.

لماذا Blockchain امنة جدا


We are always looking for feedback on the platform and user suggestions are regularly included in future releases of this price tracking software. The website is currently undergoing development to include price data from all ERC20 tokens as well order book data, blockchain usage data and more. We endeavour to keep the site simple to use with clear data visualizations that help investors stay abreast of the latest Ethereum price movements. We are determined to keep this webapp free from intrusive advertising; please share this website and its content!

1. The blockchain is a ledger that keeps track of how much ‘stuff’ (ie BTC, ETH,…create your own currency if you wish) you have. Its the history of transactions. ‘Ethereum’ provides a platform for building contracts…if a contract’s conditions are met, then a transaction (whose rules and automation are agreed ahead of time) automatically occurs and the result of that transaction becomes a part of the ledger. Anyone will be able to see that an address (sellers’ public key) has given ‘stuff’ to another address (purchasers’ public key).


J. P. Morgan Chase is developing JPM Coin on a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed "Quorum".[52] It's designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments. The idea is to satisfy regulators who need seamless access to financial goings-on, while protecting the privacy of parties that don't wish to reveal their identities nor the details of their transactions to the general public.[53]

ماذا تتعلم في Blockchain


If you do have this much money tied up in Bitcoin, though, you may want a more secure space to store it. If this is the case, Coinbase offers a Coinbase vault, which has time-delayed withdrawals (giving you 48 hours to cancel a withdrawal) and the option of multiple approvers, increasing security by ensuring that all withdrawals are approved by multiple people. They also offer a multisig vault, which is basically an even more involved and more secure vault, requiring multiple keys to unlock. 

ما هي اعلى 3 Cryptocurrencies


Izabella Kaminska, the editor of FT Alphaville, has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud.[68] The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.[69]

وبيتكوين امنة للاستثمار في


^ Iansiti, Marco; Lakhani, Karim R. (January 2017). "The Truth About Blockchain". Harvard Business Review. Harvard University. Retrieved 17 January 2017. The technology at the heart of bitcoin and other virtual currencies, blockchain is an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.

هل انا بحاجة الى محفظة اذا كنت تستخدم Coinbase


Both blockchains have the same features and are identical in every way up to a certain block where the hard-fork was implemented. This means that everything that happened on Ethereum up until the hard-fork is still valid on the Ethereum Classic Blockchain. From the block where the hard fork or change in code was executed onwards, the two blockchains act individually.

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Ethereum was officially with an unusually long list of founders. Anthony Di Iorio wrote "Ethereum was founded by Vitalik Buterin, Myself, Charles Hoskinson, Mihai Alisie, & Amir Chetrit (the initial 5) in December 2013. Joseph Lubin, Gavin Wood, & Jeffrey Wilke were added in early 2014 as founders." Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).[13][14] The basic idea of putting executable smart contracts in the blockchain needed to be specified before the software could be implemented; this work was done by Gavin Wood, then chief technology officer, in the Ethereum Yellow Paper that specified the Ethereum Virtual Machine.[15] Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin.

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